Transferring a Property from a Testamentary Trust to a Beneficiary Without CGT

Trusts are generally considered the greatest British invention, (the sandwich comes in second), and Testamentary Discretionary Trusts (TDTs) are the best of the best.

The main benefit of a TDT is the ability to get income into the hands of children and have them taxed as adults.

Another main benefit of TDTs is the ability to transfer a property owned by the trustee of the trust to that of a beneficiary of the trust without triggering CGT. This means an inspecie transfer of assets is possible without CGT.

Example

Homer dies and leaves his property portfolio indirectly to his children by establishing 3 separate TDTs in his will. Bart’s trust will hold 3 properties, as will 2 more trusts controlled by Bart’s sisters.

Bart has 5 children, so is able to distribute the $100,000 in rental income to the children tax free each year.

After a while the kids grow up and start working so any further distributions will result in tax being payable at high rates. Bart decides to reduce the tax by moving into the most expensive property and living there rent free. Then he realises that the property is subject to CGT as it is held by a trustee and the main residence exemption won’t apply.

Bart decides to use the ATO’s concession and transfer the property from the trustee to himself as a beneficiary under the will.

He gets a private ruling first and this confirms the Commissioner will not treat this as a disposal for CGT purposes because it is a transfer from a deceased estate to a beneficiary.

Note however that this is not law, but a concessional treatment by the Commissioner as stated in Paragraph 2 of PS LA 2003/12 https://www.ato.gov.au/law/view/document?docid=PSR/PS200312/NAT/ATO/00001

“… the Commissioner will not depart from the ATO’s long-standing administrative practice of treating the trustee of a testamentary trust in the same way that a legal personal representative is treated for the purposes of Division 128 of the ITAA 1997, in particular subsection 128-15(3).”

See also PBR 99991231235958 – Questions 1 and 2

also PBR 1012603789935

Discuss at

https://www.propertychat.com.au/community/threads/tax-tip-194-transferring-a-property-from-a-testamentary-trust-to-a-beneficiary-without-cgt.38844/

How long can Tax Losses be carried forward?

There is no time limit as to how long you can carry forward losses – whether income losses or capital losses, however they will be lost at death (a loss lost!). So, it makes sense that you should try to use up losses as early as possible. This is generally not too hard with income losses as these are easily eaten up the next financial year with more income being earned.

Using up capital losses tends to be more difficult though as a capital loss can only be used up by a capital gain – not general income.

Note that there are complex rules regarding companies and trusts in carrying forward losses.

Example

Homer invested money in a business he ran which failed. He lost $200,000 and has a $200,000 capital loss which he has been carrying forward for 9 years now. Homer would love to use this loss up, but the trouble is he has no other asset he could sell to offset the loss.

If Homer owned shares for example he could sell shares with a $200,000 capital gain and not have to pay any tax.

But losing his money has meant that Homer doesn’t have any capital to invest with.

However, Homer’s daughter Lisa knows a thing or 2 so sets up a discretionary trust to hold investments. It could be possible that in future a gain from the trust could be distributed to Homer and his loss could offset this so that no tax is payable.

Discuss this topic here

https://www.propertychat.com.au/community/threads/tax-tip-195-how-long-can-tax-losses-be-carried-forward.38902/

Consider the remarriage Risk when doing a Will

When one spouse dies often the surviving spouse remarries. This will mean any inheritance received by the surviving spouse could be at risk of not ending up in the children’s hands.

Example

Homer and Marge are happily married and have 3 kids, they prepare their wills so that if one dies the survivor gets everything, if they both die the kids share everything equally. Sounds good so far.

Homer dies.

Marge inherits Homer’s assets which were 50% of the main residence, 50% of the investment property and 425 pens stolen from his employer over the years.

So far all is well.

A year after Homer’s death Marge gets on tinder and eventually marries a guy called Barney.

Marge’s will is now revoked by the marriage, marge dies and under the intestacy laws of NSW the assets of Marge get shared by Barney and the kids.

Even if Marge didn’t marry Barney, he might still be able to take a share because he is a de facto spouse. If the will was in place still, he could make a family provision claim. There is also the possibility that Marge will knowingly prepare a new will and leave Barney something – or everything.

So, when making a will consider that your spouse could enter a new relationship after your death and plan for it. Assume it will happen.

For a Discussion go to: https://www.propertychat.com.au/community/threads/legal-tip-197-consider-the-remarriage-risk-when-doing-a-will.38888/

Multiple Bucket Companies as an Estate Planning Strategy

A Bucket company is a company set up to receive profits from another entity – usually a discretionary trust. The bucket company usually does nothing else, except receive money and make loans or directly invest perhaps. Over time the value of the bucket company will rise as money is coming in but not going out. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to consider in regards to estate planning and asset protection.

One estate planning strategy is to set up one separate bucket company for each child so that when the controller of the companies dies each company’s control can be passed on rather than having multiple people inherit the control of one company.

Example

Homer has 3 kids. He wants to leave them approximately the same amount of his assets 1/3.

Homer has decided to set up a discretionary trust to use to invest in shares. He seeks legal advice on the difficulties with leaving the control of the trust to more than one person so has that covered. But after a while the dividends of the share investments are building up so Homer sets up 3 bucket companies with 3 separate discretionary trusts with one trust holding the shares in each bucket company.

When the dividends come in, he causes the trustee of the share trust to distribute 1/3 to each company. Over a period of time the companies end up with large amounts of retained earnings which and then lent back to the share trust.

Homer dies.

Each of the bucket companies is then passed to each child – actually nothing is passed but the control of the bucket companies is arranged so that Child A controls Trust A and Bucket Company A.

This way things will be easy to divide. There is no more than one child involved in one company so if they want to cause the company to make loans, invest, pay dividends or close down they can do so without the need to effect or even consult with their siblings.

For a Discussion go to:

https://www.propertychat.com.au/community/threads/legal-tip-195-multiple-bucket-companies-as-an-estate-planning-strategy.38768/

No attorney but Capacity already lost?

What do you do when a family member has lost capacity but there is no power of attorney appointment in place?

Example

Dad died a while back and mum is in hospital and it looks like she has dementia and needs full time care. You, the son or daughter, need to get mum’s property sold so you can raise the funds to help cover the care needed.

You go to mum’s lawyers wanting to sell mum’s property but they point out the obvious – it is not you property to sell so you cannot enter into a contract on your mum’s behalf and you cannot sign the transfer. Is there an enduring Power of Attorney they ask? The law firm indicates they recommended one to your mother years ago (is this a breach of client confidentiality?) but she did not do one – through that firm anyway.

Later you look through all mum’s papers – there is stuff everywhere – but you cannot find any power of attorney appointments. What do you do?

The only option may be to make an application to the Guardianship Tribunal, if in NSW, to ask to be appointed as mum’s financial manager (NSW). This will take time, money and stress to do.

Something similar could happen between spouses too.

Going to the tribunal or courts to be appointed an attorney or financial guardian is best avoided if possible because

  1. Complexity
  2. Cost
  3. Time, and
  4. Multiple people could apply in opposition to each other.

Making a POA when you don’t need one will be quick, easy and cheap. This is like insurance. You don’t need it until you need it and by then it is too late to get it.!

Tip: Appoint an attorney before you need one as once you do need one it will be too late.

Discussion at:

https://www.propertychat.com.au/community/threads/legal-tip-194-no-attorney-but-capacity-already-lost.38738/

Declaration of Trust

A declaration of trust happens when the legal owner of an asset declares that they now hold that asset on trust for another person or persons.

A more technical definition is found in legislation, for example in section 8(3) of the Duties Act 1997 NSW which has:

“declaration of trust” means any declaration (other than by a will or testamentary instrument) that any identified property vested or to be vested in the person making the declaration is or is to be held in trust for the person or persons, or the purpose or purposes, mentioned in the declaration although the beneficial owner of the property, or the person entitled to appoint the property, may not have joined in or assented to the declaration.

Example

Homer owns 123 Smith Street. He is the legal and beneficial owner. One day he decides he wants to begin holding that property but for the benefit of his son Bart. Homer makes a declaration of trust that from this day forward he holds the property as trustee for Bart.

Homer is still the legal owner, but now Bart is the beneficial owner of the property. If Homer goes bankrupt the property is, at face value, not his property and not available to creditors (but…). If Homer dies this property is not one that can pass via his will. If the property is rented out the income will be taxed in the hands of Bart etc.

There are also various tax and duty consequences to making a declaration of trust and I will cover these in a future post.

Can Children be Executors under a will?

Children are considered legally ‘disabled’ until they reach 18. They can be appointed as executors under a will, but if the testator dies while the child is under 18 the child cannot act as executor.

So what happens?

Usually their legal guardian will be executor in their place, or the courts can appoint someone else.

Under NSW law this would be s 70 of the Probate and Administration Act 1898

http://www8.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/paaa1898259/s70.html

Example

Bart has divorced the mother of his sole child – Junior.

Bart makes a will while Junior is 11 and appoints Junior as the executor of his estate with no backup. Bart has no plans on dying but carks it in a skateboard accident when Junior is 16.

Junior’s guardian at this point is her mother. The mother applies for probate as guardian of the executor and this is granted by the courts.

Bart roles over in his grave when his ex-wife, whom he still hates, takes control of his estate.

Setting Up a Trust When You Have No Family

What is the point, you might ask, in setting up a discretionary trust to hold investment assets when you have no family?

A discretionary trust needs at least one beneficiary with the trustee having the option to retain income, or at least 2 beneficiaries where it doesn’t. However, most discretionary trusts will have hundreds of potential beneficiaries as they will be set up with one or two named persons as the primary beneficiary and then there will be secondary and, possibly, tertiary beneficiaries who are relations of the primary beneficiary.

So even though you are on your own now, you might have cousins or distant relatives who could be beneficiaries – this doesn’t mean they need to be recipients of trust income, but just that they could be. You never know when one of your cousins might invest in shares and lose the money and have carried forward income or capital losses.

There is also the issue that even though you may not have any family now, you may get a spouse at a future date. There may even be children and then grandchildren. All these people could and probably would be beneficiaries of the trust. This is generally the case even if they do not ‘exist’ at the time the trust was created.

Perhaps most importantly, a company could also be a beneficiary of the trust. This may allow for use of the bucket company strategy of diverting income to the company to cap the tax rate at 30%. Later on, the retained earnings in the company could be distributed to future family members (providing the shares of the bucket company are held by a different trust).

There are also the asset protection aspects to consider. Not having a spouse may mean holding all assets yourself and taking a risk of not ending up bankrupt. Where the assets are held on trust, the assets are generally much safer from attack should the controller of the trust become bankrupt at some point.

See the discussion at: https://www.propertychat.com.au/community/threads/legal-tip-190-setting-up-a-trust-when-you-have-no-family.36832/

Tax Strategy: Use Capital Losses Quickly – Recycle debt + death

Some people have carried forward capital losses. These losses can usually be carried forward until the taxpayer has a capital gain which can ‘soak up’ the capital loss.

I think it is a good idea to use up these losses as soon as possible.

The main reason being that losses are ‘lost’ at death. If the taxpayer dies their loss cannot be passed on to any other person who could utilise it. Don’t lose a loss!

Example

Bart bought a property in a mining town for $1,200,000. He ended up selling it for $700,000 and has a carried forward capital loss of $500,000.

Bart dies and leaves a rental property that he owns to his sister Lisa. The property has a $500,000 capital gain.

Unfortunately, Bart’s loss will not benefit anyone. Lisa will inherit the investment property pregnant with a $500,000 gain, yet she cannot benefit from the loss.

Had Bart sold the investment property before his death he might have made $500,000 tax free and this money could have been passed onto Lisa. He might have even sold the property to Lisa – perhaps with vendor finance if she couldn’t have afforded a loan. Also, if Bart had a flexible will his estate could have sold the property and possibly used up the gain.

Another reason to use up capital losses is their benefits with debt recycling. Making capital gains without needing to pay tax will mean there is more money with which the non-deductible debt can be reduced.


Example of Debt Recycling

Lisa has a $100,000 capital loss from some bad share investments many years ago. Because of this she has a large amount of debt still outstanding on her main residence. But this has not stopped her investing in shares again. She has learnt from her mistakes and is now making some good capital gains.

If Lisa’s shares increased in value by, say $20,000 in the first year, she could sell these shares, pay no tax, and use the proceeds to pay down the non-deductible debt, and then invest in more shares and repeat.

Doing this has 2 advantages

  1. It uses up the loss, and
  2. It produces tax free capital gains which can then be used to pay off the non-deductible debt quicker.

Speak to your tax lawyer or tax agent.

How to Fund a New Discretionary Trust

Discretionary trusts are generally started with just $10 or $20. Mostly trusts are established for a trustee to hold shares or property for the benefit of a beneficiary, so how does the trustee get the deposit or money to do this?

There are basically just 3 options to consider:

  1. Gift

A gift is an irreversible transfer from one person to another.

It is better than a loan for asset protection against bankruptcy because if the gift giver goes bankrupt generally the gift will not be available to creditors (but the claw back laws need to be considered).

Gifts to discretionary trusts may not be ideal though because when you die the gift will not form part of your assets and cannot be passed via your will.

If the gift giver is borrowing money to gift to a trust the interest will not be deductible.

Gifts should be documented with a deed.

2. Loans with interest

A loan can be made with interest accruing. However, interest is income to the receiver. Interest may be deductible to the trust if it is using the borrowed money invest, s 8-1 ITAA97.

The interest rate could at market, under market rates or higher than market rates. Each has different consequences.

But a person cannot contract with themselves, so you could not lend to yourself if you are the trustee.

Generally, someone borrowing money to lend to the trustee should consider charging interest to the trust. This interest would need to be at least the same interest that the bank is charging you. But the question you should be asking is if the bank has a first mortgage security over real property and charges say 4% to you, if you lend to the trust at 4% without security would this be a market interest rate? Are there any Part IVA consequences?

A loan should be documented with a written loan agreement which would be either a contract or a deed.

3. Interest free loans

Many like to make interest free loans to trusts because there are no direct tax consequences and the loaned money would generally come back to the lender at death and therefore form part of their estate and can then pass into a testamentary discretionary trust.

But a major issue with loans is the various state limitations acts. This could cause a loan to become unenforceable if there has been no activity with a loan for 6 years (NSW law). So, a loan made say 7 years ago which is interest free and no transactions have happened will not be recoverable if the borrower refuses to pay back. You might think that you are not going to sue a related trust, but you must remember that if you set up a trust you are just in control temporarily. If you lose capacity, go bankrupt or die the control of the trust will pass to someone else.

Interest fee loans should be documented in the same way as loans with interest.

Which method should you use?

You should all get specific legal advice from a lawyer, but as a guide:

  1. If you have cash and are concerned about bankruptcy a gift might be worth considering
  2. If you are not concerned about bankruptcy and have cash, then an interest free loan may be worth considering
  3. If you are borrowing and on-lending the money to the trust a loan with interest may be worth considering.

If you do make a loan you must adhere to the terms of the loan for it to be effective.